explanation of catalogue practice


A work catalogues with the name(s) or recognised designation of an artist, without any qualification, is, in our opinion, a work by the artist.

In other case, the following expressions, with the following meanings are used:

“Attributed to…” 
In our opinion probably a work by the artist in whole or in part.

“Studio of…”
“Workshop of…”
In our opinion a work executed in the studio or workshop of the artist, possibly under his supervision.

“Circle of…”
In our opinion a work of the period of the artist and showing his influence.

“Follower of…”
In our opinion a work executed in the artist’s style but not necessarily by a pupil.

“Manner of…”
In our opinion a work executed in the artist’s style but of a later date.

In our opinion a copy (of any date) of a work of the artist.

In our opinion the work has been signed/dated/inscribed by the artist. The addition of a question mark (?) adds an element of doubt.

“With signature…”
“With date…”
“With inscription…”
In our opinion the signature/date/inscription/stamp in by a hand other than that of the artist.


“Builder’s model…”
In our opinion a model produced in the workshops of the yard. 

“Boardroom model…” 
A model which has been produced under contract by a professional modelling firm for the yard.

In our opinion a modern model which is built closely conforming to the typical types of examples found within the genre.

In our opinion an original model which has been to a lesser or greater extent restored in some or all areas. The condition report may attempt to detail more precisely which areas these are.

“Restored overall…”
In our opinion a model or object which has been restored in every context, including fixings and mounts.

Model Scales

Where possible indications are given of model scales, in some instances these are provided by individual modellers, or worked out from measurements.


These are provided in order of Height x Width x Depth, unless otherwise stated. Where it is not possible to separate the model from the case, overall
measurements are taken from the widest point of each surface.


Condition may be mentioned in italics within brackets at the end of a description; detailed condition reports may be had from the department prior to sale and are
for reference only. Clients should satisfy themselves in person wherever possible as to the condition of a lot, or ask an agent to inspect it for them. All statements
provided by Charles Miller Ltd are honestly given, however our staff are not trained conservators or restorers and accordingly any statement given will not be


An export licence issued by the Department of the Environment will be required for the export of any item made of or incorporating (irrespective of percentage)
animal material such as ivory, whalebone, tortoiseshell, rhinoceros horn, rosewood and lignum vitæ etc., and this may take up to eight weeks to obtain.
Clients are advised to check with the regulating body in the country of importation regarding any possible restrictions on the importation of items with in this
category – some countries have an absolute ban on the importation of certain materials. For example, the U.S. generally prohibits the importation of articles
containing species that it has designated endangered or threatened if those articles are less than 100 years of age.